Monitoring and collecting Green House Gases (GHGs) levels is important to develop strategies to reduce them. The use of satellite data for monitoring Green House Gases is now well established. It’s allowed us to build a long-term atmospheric GHG level.
The World’s first satellite dedicated to GHS’s monitoring in the atmosphere is made by Japan in January 2009. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched the Green House Gases observing satellite (GOSAT), also known as “IBUKI” which means ‘Breath’ in Japanese. It measures the concentration of CO2 and Methane in the atmosphere. In 2018, JAXA launched GOSAT 2, a successor of GOSAT, which observe levels of CO2, Ozone, Methane, and Water vapor in the atmosphere.
NASA launched its first dedicated Earth Satellite to study the atmosphere in 2014, called Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2).In the year 2019,OCO-3 was launched to investigate the distribution of CO2 and changing pattern of fossil fuel combustion.
The European space agency’s (ESA) METOP-A and TROPOMI (Sentinel-5p), were launched in 2006 and 2007 respectively. TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) onboard Sentinel-5 precursor is an imaging spectrometer whereas The Meteorological Operational Satellite Programme (METOP) is a series of three polar-orbiting satellites which provides Weather data to monitor climate and improve weather forecasts.
TANSAT (CarbonSat) is a Chinese Earth Observation Satellite dedicated to monitoring CO2, launched in 2016. Recently ESA has announced plans to develop a new satellite for measuring GHG Emissions with high accuracy and is expected to track human-made GHG emissions. The constellation of satellites scheduled to get operational by 2026.
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